We've all heard of cleansers and moisturisers, but skincare has come a long way from a simple three-step programme. Now, there are effective acids, oils, clays, and many such ingredients to integrate into your daily routine, each claiming to be exactly what your skin requires.
What are emulsifiers, essential oils, and that acid sounding name? What are AHAs & BHAs? How is the pH level of my skin being affected?
Struggling to understand some terms and ingredients? To make it easier for you, we've added approximately 80 important skin terminologies and natural ingredients collectively, for you to explore and understand what they are. You can use this glossary to help you in your next purchase of skin care products that suit you best.
Antioxidants are synthetic or natural chemicals that can prevent or postpone certain types of cell damage. They function by both reversing and preventing oxidative stress, often known as free radical damage. It helps correct signs of age, prevents signs of sun damage, brightens skin tone and helps skin repair itself. Vitamin E is the most powerful antioxidant that can be found in your skin care products along with Vitamin A, Vitamin B3 and Vitamin C.
There are several different acids that are regularly utilised in the skincare world. Alpha Hydroxy Acids or AHAs exfoliate the top layers of skin to reduce dullness and texture; some AHAs can also stimulate collagen formation, while others offer antioxidant and moisturising effects. A few natural sources of AHAs include lemon, grapefruit, papaya, tomato and pineapple.
Amino acids are essential nutrients for wound healing, skin growth, and cell repair; the acid-base balance and water retention in cellular layers such as the outermost layer of the skin; protection against UV damage, and maintenance of an appropriate skin microbiome. Amino acids soothe the skin; help moisturise it and also act as antioxidants.
This ingredient has been used in many different cultures throughout history for its potential healing properties and has been heralded as a wonder ingredient for everything from treating acne to improving wrinkles. It can come in powder, liquid, and gel form and can be found in products like creams, moisturisers, gels, and masks. Aloe Vera is known to calm, soothe, and hydrate the skin.
Also known as Vitamin B7 or B Complex, is hailed as the secret to a clear complexion (not to mention longer, stronger nails and hair). Biotin contributes to overall skin health. It can be found in various Fruits such as avocados, bananas and raspberries. Vegetables that contain biotin are sweet potatoes, spinach, sunflower seeds.
Beta Hydroxy Acids or BHAs are effective in reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and improving overall skin texture, without the occasional irritation associated with the use of AHAs. BHAs are used for acne and sun damage. These products go deep into your epidermis to dry out excess oil and dead skin cells to unclog your pores. Because of its impact on skin in this way, BHAs are most suitable for combination to oily skin
Bakuchiol has caused quite the furore in the world of skincare, as it has been hailed to be a natural, side effect-free and vegan alternative to tackling signs of ageing, with many parallels being drawn to retinol, the most effective anti-ageing active we know. An antioxidant extracted from the leaves and the seeds of the Babchi plant (Psoralea Corylifolia), bakuchiol has reserved its space in the realm of beauty elixirs with its potent properties. It can be enjoyed in serum or oil forms, depending on your skin’s requirements and tendencies.
Caprylyl glycol is an alcohol derived from caprylic acid, which is naturally found in palm and coconut oils. “It acts as a stabiliser to boost shelf life and helps prevent other ingredients from spoiling”, says Sapna Palep, MD, a dermatologist at Spring Street Dermatology in New York City. Caprylyl glycol is a humectant, which means it helps the skin retain water.
It's impossible to discuss anti-aging skincare without bringing up Collagen. Collagen is the most essential structural protein in our skin, and it is responsible for our skin appearing plump and youthful. This protein accounts for approximately 80% of the skin's composition, and its fibres provide rigidity and strength to the skin. Not only is collagen made in our bodies, but it can also be derived from plants.
Mosquito bites and rashes are probably your first memories of this thick pink ointment if you've ever used it before. As a result of its potent anti-inflammatory qualities, it is sometimes used for the treatment of acne as well. Calamine lotion is a combination of zinc oxide and iron oxide. Calamine lotion may not be able to address the fundamental causes of acne, but it may be able to alleviate the symptoms of a blemish (read: redness and a raised bump).
With a high fatty acid content, the richness of coconut oil makes it an excellent emollient and occlusive, trapping essential moisture and hydration safely into the epidermis, while smoothening and evening out any skin texture. The extracts of the kalpavriksha also serve as an enhancement for natural sun protection, working in tandem with your sunscreen in ensuring your skin barrier is fully sealed.
Butters, oils, esters, lipids, and fatty acids are all considered emollients. These can even be natural options such as shea butter or coconut oil. When skin is dry and flaky, there are open spaces in your skin cells. An emollient can help to fill those spaces and smooth out the skin. Emollients are beneficial not only for anyone dealing with dry, rough skin, but also for those with conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and contact dermatitis.
Ingredients that don't ordinarily mix can be combined with emulsifiers (for example, water & oil). Wax is an excellent emulsifier for organic skin care products because of its natural properties as an emulsifier. Wax emulsifiers include candelilla wax, carnauba wax, rice bran wax, and beeswax, among others. - these are just for DIYs.
Eucalyptus oil is an essential oil produced from the leaves of an evergreen tree native to Australia, but also found in many other places around the world. Aside from the pure form, it can be found in products like soaps, shower gels and beauty oils, as well as in bath salts and cleansers. When it comes to skincare, Eucalyptus Oil has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and analgesic properties. The essential oil is easily recognised by its strong, woody, spa-like aroma.
Free radicals are unstable atoms that can cause cell damage, resulting in ageing. The body's ability to combat the impacts of free radicals deteriorates as it matures. As a result, there are more free radicals, additional oxidative stress, and increased cell damage, leading to degenerative processes as well as "normal" ageing. Antioxidants can help to prevent the harmful effects of free radicals. Antioxidants can be found in berries, citrus fruits, soy products, and carrots.
The majority of enzymes used in skincare are derived from fruits such as pineapple and papaya. Fruit enzymes, like digestive enzymes in your intestines, can break down proteins. Fruit enzymes dissolve the keratin protein in the skin's outermost layer, allowing you to remove harsh, dull dead skin cells and reveal soft, bright skin beneath.
Ferulic acid, also known as hydroxycinnamic acid, is a potent antioxidant that combats free radical damage caused by pollution, UV light, or infrared radiation, all of which fasten skin ageing. It can be found in the cell walls of plants such as oats, brown rice, peanuts, and oranges, but it is most commonly linked with apples. It is an antioxidant that decreases formation of fine lines and wrinkles, brown spots, and other signs of premature ageing.
Flaxseed oil, also known as flax oil or linseed oil, is made from flax seeds that have been ground and pressed to release their natural oil. Flax seeds can do wonders to brighten the tone of your skin. It has antioxidants and a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids that can lighten scars, making your skin look smoother and more radiant.
Glycerine is a naturally occurring compound in the body. In topical skincare, it is derived from plants. It acts as a humectant, drawing moisture from the air into the stratum corneum (top layer of the skin) and continuing to draw moisture to the deeper levels of the dermis due to its low molecular weight. Glycerine moisturises, smoothens and makes skin appear dewy. It prevents trans epidermal water loss in the skin, which allows natural oils to nourish and repair.
Glycolic acid is an AHA derived from sugarcane. It acts as a chemical exfoliant by loosening the bonds between dead skin cells while helping to treat acne. Glycolic acid also stimulates collagen production and acts as a humectant, attracting moisture to the skin.
Grape Seed Extract
Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Oil, often known as grapeseed oil, is a light oil produced from grape seeds that quickly penetrates the skin, leaving it soft, supple, and moisturised. It is excellent for treating oily or acne-prone skin, lessens redness and lightens scars. It contains Vitamin E— which reduces inflammation—as well as moisturising fatty acids, it may help skin appear tighter and more youthful.
One of the most prevalent ingredients in hair and skin care products is the humectant, which is a moisturising agent. Humectants are well-known for their capacity to retain moisture while keeping the overall qualities of the product at hand. You're probably more familiar with humectants than you think. It helps retain moisture in skin, preserves overall properties of products, helps seal cracks in skin, exfoliates, and removes dead skin.
Humectants can come from natural sources, like glycerine, honey, aloe vera gel or liquid, sorbitol (derived from sugar cane), lactic acid, and hydrolysed wheat, baobab, and rice proteins.
Hyaluronic acid is a natural carbohydrate produced by the cells in our body and is highly moisturising. Hyaluronic acid is a molecule that helps maintain moisture in the eyes and skin, and it keeps the joints in the body lubricated. As people grow older, the amount of hyaluronic acid in their bodies is reduced, which can lead to ageing wrinkled skin. Rose Oil is the closest natural substitute to Hyaluronic Acid making it an excellent option for hydrating dry, itchy skin. The skin also easily absorbs the oil, allowing its antioxidants to travel deep into the skin's layers.
Hemp Seed Oil
Hempseed Oil is the oil derived from the seeds of the hemp plant which is a cannabis plant cultivated for non-drug use. The oil is legal and used in large quantities for cosmetics, nutritional supplementation, and skin oils. It is a skin hydrator and helps reduce inflammation and regulate oil production. It is also a humectant, so it draws moisture to the skin. It is one of the best oils to give you shining, fresh, and youthful skin.
Isopropyl Myristate is produced using Myristic Acid which is almost always derived from nut oils (coconut) or palm kernel oil. It is an emollient, though it also acts as a thickening agent and lubricant in beauty products. With the use of Isopropyl Myristate in skin care products skin hydration is retained, other compounds are better able to penetrate, and compositions with a high oil content feel silky rather than greasy.
Jojoba has a variety of names like goat nut, deer nut, quinine nut and coffee berry. It is a natural oil produced from the seed of the Chinensis plant, which is native to the west coast of the USA and north-western Mexico. It is a natural emollient that hydrates the skin, balances natural oil production, delivers antioxidant protection, has anti-inflammatory effects, may have some antibacterial properties, and can also help reduce acne.
Kaolin (also referred to as white clay, China clay, hectorite, or magnesium silicate) is a type of soft clay found in nature, but can also be produced synthetically in a laboratory. People with oily or acne-prone skin use it as a mask treatment, which is one of the most common ways of its application. Kaolin absorbs excess sebum (the oily substance our skin makes) and moisture in oily skin. It controls oil and shine and draws out impurities.
Kojic acid, a naturally-derived ingredient. It comes from mushrooms and is excellent at fading hyperpigmentation and discoloration aka dark spots. It inhibits an enzyme necessary in the production of melanin, helping to fade dark spots and discoloration. It also delivers some antioxidant protection.
Lactic acid is a by-product of fermented sugar and starch in sour milk via bacteria. It is a light peeling agent, depending on strength. It diminishes wrinkles, reduces acne. It works by boosting the rate of skin turnover, resulting in the growth of new, younger-looking skin which may also have better moisture holding capability.
L-ASCORBIC ACID (Vitamin C)
L-Ascorbic Acid or commonly known as Vitamin C is a powerful ingredient in many anti-aging products. Products that contain L-Ascorbic Acid, penetrate the skin tissue and are more active in collagen production. This, in turn, increases firmness in the skin.
L-Ascorbic Acid is a rejuvenating vitamin ingredient that also plays a part in the reduction of photo-damage caused by harmful UVB rays. Vitamin C applied to the skin can also encourage new collagen to grow. It helps maintain the collagen you do have and protects the precious protein from damage.
Lavender oil (also known as Lavandula Angustifolia) is an essential oil derived from the flowers of the lavender plant, which grow in countries such as France and Bulgaria. As an antioxidant, lavender oil may help protect the skin against free radicals.
It’s anti-itch and anti-inflammatory effects, soothe and improve acne prone skin.
The benefits of Liquorice root have been well known since the days of ancient China. It stimulates the growth and migration of skin cells. It is a skin brightener and inhibits the production of an enzyme needed to produce melanin (pigment) in the skin, & helps remove excess melanin.
It's also been demonstrated to have antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and skin calming properties, and it's used to treat skin conditions like rosacea, eczema, psoriasis, and dermatitis.
Melanin is a natural skin pigment. Pigmentation of the skin is caused by the accumulation of melanin-containing melanosomes in the skin’s basal layer. Hair, skin, and eye colour in people and animals mostly depends on the type and amount of melanin they have. Special skin cells called melanocytes make melanin. Many factors determine skin colour, but the pigment melanin is by far the most important. Melanin, which is produced by skin cells called melanocytes, is the fundamental determinant of skin colour in persons with darker skin.
Magnesium is an absorbent mineral that is essential to the overall health of the body. Magnesium is found naturally in many foods and can be consumed or used topically. When used in skincare, magnesium may reduce acne, calm sensitive skin and rosacea, and improve the skin's overall appearance. It may reduce skin damage, treat dry skin, and evidence suggests that the proper combination of calcium and magnesium enhances barrier repair.
Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate
Magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP, for short) is a water-soluble form of vitamin C made by combining ascorbic acid (pure vitamin C) with a magnesium salt. It delivers many of the same benefits as vitamin C. It promotes hydration deeper in the skin, but is not as potent an antioxidant as pure vitamin C. Its soothing properties may play a role in reducing blemishes.
Niacinamide (Vitamin B3)
Niacinamide, otherwise known as vitamin B3, is an old-time favourite ingredient in the organic beauty industry. It is naturally derived from nicotinic acid, found in brewer's yeast and many cereals. It helps restore cellular energy, repair damaged DNA, and reduce the immunosuppressive effects of sun-induced UV rays.
When using Vitamin B3, it is good to combine it with other stable and powerful antioxidants, such as camellia sinensis (green tea) catechins, quercetin, and tocopherol.
Neem oil is made from the seed of the tropical neem tree, also known as Indian lilac. Neem oil has a long history of use as a folk treatment all throughout the world, and it has been used to cure a variety of ailments. Despite its strong smell, it is heavy in fatty acids and other nutrients and is used in a variety of beauty items such as skin creams, body lotions, hair treatments, and cosmetics.
Neem oil has antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory benefits—all good properties to look for to combat acne. Skin's cells can be repaired with its antioxidant property which benefits people with acne scars or hyperpigmentation.
Omega Fatty Acids
When it comes to health and beauty, omega fatty acids are one of those rare nutrients that can both be consumed orally and applied topically to improve your skin's appearance. The outermost layer of our skin is strengthened and made healthy by fatty acids, which prevent moisture from escaping and smooth the skin's surface.
Look for products with plant-based oils high in omega fatty acids such as Safflower (omega-6), sunflower (omega-6 and -9), rosehip (omega-6 and -3), and blackcurrant seed oil (omega-6) which are among the most commonly found ones. You can use these oils instead of a moisturiser or on top of it for added moisture.
Olive oil may be a pantry staple and essential ingredient for our health, but research shows that olive oil may also prevent sun damage. Olive oil is the liquid fat extracted from olives. It was cultivated in Palestine between 6000-4500 BC, according to archaeological data, and (unsurprisingly) it has been utilised as a skincare cure from the time of the Egyptians and ancient Greeks.
It contains the presence of essential fatty acids, as well as the emollient squalene (one of the most prevalent lipids produced by human skin cells), phenolic compounds, and polyphenols. In order to keep the skin hydrated, it reduces water evaporation. This moisturization improves the skin's health by increasing its water content. It Protects against environmental damage and prevents premature ageing.
The gluten-free, nutrient-dense whole grain has been dubbed a true powerhouse ingredient because of its high concentration of vitamins and minerals including manganese, iron, and zinc. Skin-calming active minerals, such as beta glucans, ferulic acid, vitamin E, and flavonoids, can be found in whole bran oats.
It aids in the restoration of a broken skin barrier by rebuilding it and reducing water loss, which is beneficial in both eczema and dry skin, and it also has anti-itching effects, making it highly soothing for itchy and dry winter skin. Saponins, a pulverised oat extract, are high in antioxidants and lipids that preserve your skin. When combined with water, they form an occlusive barrier on the face, retaining water, locking in moisture, soothing sunburns, and even hydrating acne-prone skin.
Parabens help to keep active ingredients stable, effective and free from harmful bacteria growth—which is especially important in jars and pots that allow for finger dipping. But the question is are parabens safe? Many believe parabens are linked to major diseases and hormone disturbance in both men and women. We will not use an ingredient if several studies raise concerns about its safety for humans or the environment.
If you want to be safe, avoid parabens wherever possible. Lucky for you, all NESARA by Nicky products are free from Parabens!
Ready for a quick science lesson? The pH scale measures how acidic or alkaline a substance is based on a number between 0 and 14. To put it another way, 7 is neutral on a pH scale of 1-14; anything lower or higher than this number indicates acidity or alkalinity. The optimal pH value of skin on most of our face and body lies between 4.7 and 5.75.
Dr. Karcher, a New York City–based dermatologist, explains that the skin's barrier is slightly acidic: to keep moisture and bacteria out. "Your skin will appear dry and red if your pH balance is incorrect and it is too alkaline. Whereas, skin disorders like eczema and acne can develop if the pH of your skin is too high or acidic."
Skin pH can be affected by extrinsic influences such as: A rise or fall in the humidity or temperature, pollution and dirt, frequent washing or use of harsh chemicals and alkaline cosmetics on your skin.
Pomegranate Extract (Punica Granatum)
As the name suggests. Pomegranate Extract is derived from the fruit. In terms of history, the pomegranate was introduced to Egypt approximately 1600 BC, where it became renowned not only as a significant food source, but also for therapeutic uses.
Pomegranate is a potent fruit high in polyphenols such as anthocyains, ellagic acid, and numerous other plant polyphenols. These chemicals are what make pomegranate extract so powerful since they help to detoxify the skin of free radicals while also healing skin that has been damaged by environmental causes such as UV radiation.
The anthocyains in pomegranate operate similarly to how Vitamin C found in citrus fruit benefits skin—not so much the pomegranate but what the pomegranate comprises. It reduces inflammation and strengthens the dermal membrane which protects against oxidative stress, while assisting in the repair of our DNA. It reduces wrinkles and promotes regeneration and thickening of the epidermis.
Quercetin was derived from the oak tree—a tree known for its endurance and longevity. It is a plant-pigment and flavonoid found naturally in fruits, vegetables, and plants, such as berries and broccoli, green tea leaf, and moringa leaf that can be applied topically on the skin or even consumed orally.
Quercetin, like other flavonoids, is utilised in skincare because of its antioxidant capabilities, which can help prevent the damaging effects of UV radiation on the skin. It can help lower oxidative stress when used along with sunscreen. It also improves skin redness, itch, and inflammation when applied to damaged skin.
Rosehip oil, also known as rosehip seed oil, is a pressed seed oil that has been revered since ancient times for its numerous healing characteristics, making it particularly beneficial for sensitive skin. It gets its name from the tiny fruit that grows beneath the rose and is currently a prominent ingredient in skincare due to its moisturising and anti-aging properties.
It’s a power oil that regenerates and heals the skin.It increases collagen production and skin elasticity, fights free radicals, has dramatic skin restorative powers and intensely hydrates and moisturises the skin. It also has the ability to calm inflammation and combat acne.
SPF or Sun Protection Factor is a number, such as SPF15. It tells you how much UVB light protection a product provides. Sunburn protection rises as the SPF value increases. There is a common misperception that SPF is related to the amount of time spent in the sun. This is not accurate because SPF is directly proportional to the amount of solar exposure rather than the time of solar exposure.
It does not advise us about the amount of time you can spend in the sun without getting sunburned and is a relative measure of the level of sunburn protection offered by sunscreens.
It enables customers to compare the level of sunburn protection offered by various sunscreens. For example, it is of common knowledge that SPF 30 sunscreens give better sunburn protection than SPF 8 sunscreens.The amount of SPF also depends on whether the skin is Caucasian or skin of colour. People with skin of colour would ideally need an SPF of 50 to protect their skin from sun damage.
Squalane, a natural emollient, nestles between the uneven cracks over the epidermis to create a smooth, velvety feel to the skin. It also functions as an occlusive, trapping moisture within the skin barrier and limiting trans epidermal water loss. It is particularly noteworthy, though, how it manages to deliver its benefits without being heavy or greasy—a trait that distinguishes it from other, generally heavier facial oils.
Squalane can be naturally sourced from plants, for example, olives and sugar cane.
It contains beneficial components like fatty acids and antioxidants. It contains beneficial antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and emollient characteristics and is used to treat a wide range of skin conditions, including rashes, sunburn, chapping, ulcers, blemishes, eczema, and dermatitis.
Overall, it does a great job of hydrating dry skin and protecting it from harsh environmental factors.
Tocopherol (Vitamin E)
Commonly known as Vitamin E, this ultra-nourishing antioxidant contains anti-inflammatory characteristics that boost its relaxing impact while also protecting the skin from rashes and sores. While acting as a moisture magnet, it also contains natural SPF and protects against UV-induced damage.
It protects your skin from free radical damage, helps reduce the appearance of scars, leaving it bright and blemish-free.
Tea Tree oil
Tea tree oil is an essential oil derived mainly from a plant native to Australia known as Melaleuca Alternifolia. Tea tree oil has been utilised as a traditional medicine by the Aborigines for millennia, who allegedly inhaled it to alleviate coughs and applied it topically to heal the skin.
Tea tree oil has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, Terpinene-4-ol is the active ingredient in the tea tree oil that destabilises the cell of the bacteria, essentially killing it. At the same time, it reduces the inflammatory cascades that cause irritation and redness, which is a significant advantage for acne-prone skin. It can work on both comedonal acne (blackheads, whiteheads, smaller blemishes) and inflammatory acne (big, red, angry pimples).
Sunlight contains ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which is made up of many types of rays. UVA and UVB rays are arguably the most familiar forms of UV radiation. These rays can have a variety of effects on your skin.
UV rays are classified according to wavelength: UVA (longest wavelength), UVB (medium wavelength), and UVC (shortest wavelength). UVA affects the inner cells in the top layer of skin including dermis, causing sunburns while UVB affects the cells in the top layer of skin leading to skin-ageing. Therefore, both are likely to cause sun damage/ burn and premature ageing, wrinkles, and some skin cancers.
Vetiveria Zizanioides (Vetiver Essential Oil)
Vetiver essential oil, also known as khus oil, is derived from the vetiver plant, a clumpy, green grass native to India that can grow up to five feet tall. Vetiver is related to other grasses used for essential oils, such as lemongrass and citronella.
Vetiver root has antioxidant properties and helps in protecting your skin from the signs of ageing. Used primarily for its calming and relaxing powers, vetiver essential oil packs quite a punch when it comes to antibacterial functions, fighting and purifying the skin from within.
When it comes to reading a label, water is recognised in the form of deionized, distilled, or purified, and is often used as a vehicle to deliver other ingredients into the skin.
However, in your daily life, drinking plenty of water is the simplest way to give skin a boost, hydrating from within and flushing out toxins.
Willow Bark Extract
Willow bark extract, commonly known as nature's aspirin, is obtained from willow bark trees of various colours, including white, black, and purple. The ingredient is a natural salicin source, which is where the powerful acne-fighting ingredient that you're likely to be more familiar with, salicylic acid, comes from.
Willow bark extract helps exfoliate the skin gently, revealing more vibrant, healthy-looking skin. Salicin's anti-inflammatory effects can also relieve redness and irritation. Willow bark extract contains a high concentration of tannins, which are natural astringents. This tightens the skin and makes the pores appear smaller.
Wheatgerm Oil (Triticum Vulgare)
Wheat germ oil is a strong force in repairing the skin and nourishing it with concentrated goodness derived from the wheat plant itself. It is extracted from the embryo of the kernel, has significant levels of tocopherols and fatty acids, as well as zinc and selenium, all of which are vital for maintaining the health and beauty of your skin.
Wheat germ oil has been used for ages for its nutritious benefits, with Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine praising its plethora of characteristics that nurture the skin.
Xanthan Gum is a thickener and emulsifying agent. It’s formed when sugars are fermented with a bacteria known as Xanthomonas campestris to create a thick substance. In skincare, it creates a beautiful slip and silky feel on the skin, aids with the ease of application of the product, and keeps the formula from separating.
Ylang-ylang essential oil
The Cananga tree produces a yellow, star-shaped bloom known as ylang ylang (Cananga odorata). This tropical species is native to the Indian Ocean's surrounding countries, including India, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, and sections of Australia.
Ylang ylang’s headey, aromatic scent is fruity, flowery, and rich and is also called the ‘perfume tree’, since its scent calms you while the oil repairs damaged skin, fades marks and restores the skin’s natural texture.
Derived from the naturally occurring mineral zincite, Zinc oxide is commonly featured in high-performance sunscreens as it can reflect sunlight and provide a barrier between the skin and potentially harmful UV radiation. It assists in collagen synthesis and DNA repair, which can help keep skin looking younger and healthier.